P0603 Infiniti? (Solution)

  • What does this mean? OBD2 Code P0603 Infiniti definition: Battery voltage is supplied to the ECM/PCM even when the ignition switch is turned OFF for the ECM/PCM memory function of the DTC memory, the air-fuel ratio feedback compensation value memory, the idle air volume learning value memory, etc.

How do I fix code P0603?

How to Fix P0603

  1. Fully charge your battery so all measurements you take are accurate.
  2. Inspect the battery cables for corrosion, damage or loose connections.
  3. Make sure the wires going into the fuse box wiring harness are undamaged.
  4. Located and inspect the engine control module and all wiring going to and from it.

What does P0603 mean?

The P0603 code indicates that your Powertrain Control Module (PCM) has failed its own Keep Alive Memory (KAM) self-test. The PCM is a computer in your car that controls a variety of essential systems, such as the ignition, engine timing, fuel/air mixture, transmission, and anti-lock breaks.

What is a Kam module?

OBD-II Code P0603 is defined as a Internal Control Module Keep Alive Memory (KAM) Error. The PCM or Power Train Control Module performs many vital functions in a modern vehicle, such as management of the Fuel System, Ignition System, Transmission, Anti-Lock Brake and Traction Control systems.

What are the signs of a bad PCM?

7 Common PCM Failure Symptoms

  • Your ‘Check Engine’ Light is On.
  • Your Car Won’t Start or Starts Roughly.
  • Sudden Loss of Gas Mileage.
  • You Failed Your Emissions Test.
  • Your Engine Stutters or Stalls.
  • Erratic or Random Shifting.
  • You’re Receiving a PCM-Related Error Code.
  • What to Do If You Experience PCM Failure Symptoms.

How do I clear keep alive memory?

When an Electronic Engine Controls (EEC) system component is replaced, the Keep Alive Memory (KAM) should be cleared to erase the information stored by the processor from the original component. To clear the KAM, disconnect the battery negative terminal for five minutes or more (preferably 15 minutes).

What is the keep alive memory?

Keep alive memory (KAM) is a type of volatile RAM memory that can be wired straight to the battery so that its data won’t be erased when you turn off the ignition. KAM is crucial because it stores data regarding drive cycles. This memory constantly changes based on driving and sensor inputs.

How do I fix code P0605?

What repairs can fix the P0605 code?

  1. Repairing a faulty ground or power supply such as corroded components and damaged wiring.
  2. An Engine Control Module update, reprogramming or reflash (if applicable)
  3. Replacing the ECM.

What is PCM in a car?

November 7, 2020. The powertrain control module, aka PCM, is your vehicle’s brain. It manages the engine, transmission and other systems based on information it receives from various sensors around the vehicle.

What is code P1000?

Trouble code P1000 DTC is a manufacturer specific trouble code, most commonly used by Ford, Jaguar, and Mazda. It simply means that the engine control computer (ECC) has not completed its emission systems testing. A vehicle’s engine computer must complete multiple self-tests known as Readiness Monitors.

What does code p062f mean?

When this code is stored, this means the PCM (powertrain control module, also known as ECM or engine control module in other vehicle makes) has found an internal performance error with the EEPROM (electronically erasable read-only memory).

What does code P061B mean?

P061B is a generic diagnostic trouble code (DTC) that stands for “ Internal Control Module Torque Calculation Performance.” It indicates that the powertrain control module (PCM) made a torque calculation error, either due to an internal failure or unexpected sensor data.

How much does it cost to replace PCM?

The PCM is a computer, and computers aren’t cheap to replace. That’s why the average PCM replacement cost is anywhere between $800 and $1,500, depending on the car model and labor costs. Even worse, this is almost all in the cost of the PCM itself. Labor typically only runs between $75 and $100.

What causes a PCM to go bad?

PCMs typically fail for one of two reasons: voltage overloads (often due to a short in a solenoid or actuator circuit) or environmental factors (corrosion, thermal stress or vibration). Thermal stress and vibration can form microcracks in circuit boards (which are repairable).

Can I drive my car with a bad ECM?

A bad ECM may lead to a vehicle that won’ t or is difficult to start. If the ECM fails completely, it will leave the vehicle without engine management control, and will not start or run as a result. The engine may still crank, but it will not be able to start without the vital inputs from the computer.

Infiniti DTC P0603

Infiniti vehicles affected by this TSB include the 2006-2008 FX (S50), 2009 FX (S51), 2006-2007 G35 Sedan (V35), 2007-2008 G35 Sedan (V36), 2008-2009 G37 Coupe (CV36), 2009 G37 Sedan (V36), 2006-2009 M (Y50), 2008 EX35 (J50), and 2006 Q45 (F50). If the vehicle’s MIL is activated and the DTC P0603 is recorded in the ECM, it is possible that this DTC was saved as a result of a series of prior low battery voltage, dead battery, or battery terminal disconnections in the vehicle’s electrical system.

  1. Connect CONSULT III to the vehicle’s electrical system. Turn the key in the ignition, but do not start the vehicle. Look for DTCs on your computer. Verify that the DTC P0603 has been saved. If this is the case, the advisory does not apply. If there are any extra DTCs saved, make a note of them before proceeding. Delete any and all DTCs. Confirm that there are no DTCs saved in the engine. Remove the key from the ignition. Keep an eye on the display for exactly 5 minutes after it changes from ‘No DTC’ to ‘Error.’ In order for the ECM to totally shut down, a waiting time must be observed. Please do not detach either of the battery cables at any point throughout this operation. Start the engine by turning on the ignition switch but do not start the engine. Continue to wait for 10 seconds when the display changes from ‘Error’ to ‘No DTC.’ To complete the system check, repeat Steps 5 and 6 a total of five more times.

It is possible that DTC P0603 was triggered by a series of prior low battery voltage, dead battery, or battery terminal disconnections if the DTC P0603 does not appear after running the system check. -The vehicle’s harness, connectors, and ECM are all in perfect working condition. – It is not necessary to replace the ECM. P0603 does not require any further action on the part of the user. If the DTC P0603 does not illuminate after the system check, the following claims information should be used: DESCRIPTIONOP CODESYMDIAFRTDTC P0603 system checkEX16AAHD320.6 DESCRIPTIONOP CODESYMDIAFRTDTC P0603 system checkEX16AAHD320.6

  1. In order to obtain more DTC P0603 diagnostic help, go to the applicable Electronic Service Manual.

INFINITI P0603 – OBD Codes

The KAM Test Error on the Powertrain Control Module indicates that the PCM has had an internal memory malfunction. The presence of external goods, on the other hand, might result in this DTC.

Possible causes

  • Battery terminal corrosion
  • KAPWR to PCM interrupt/open
  • Loose battery connection
  • Damaged PCM
  • Reprogramming

Diagnostic help

It is possible to create a DTC on the initial power-up if KAPWR is interrupted to the PCM as a result of a battery or PCM disconnection.

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P0603: Internal Control Module Keep Alive Memory (KAM) Error

Are you curious as to why your check engine light is illuminated and what P0603 has to do with it? Apart from being responsible for operating all of the electrical components that make up your vehicle’s operation, the engine control computer also records information on how you drive. As it ‘learns’ your driving style, the computer modifies various parts of the vehicle’s performance to fit your individual requirements, resulting in the most efficient vehicle performance possible. The ‘Keep Alive Memory’ (KAM) system is the name given to this type of memory storage component.

Keep in mind that this specific code is not unusual, particularly in the case of diesel-powered vehicles.

If you encounter this issue, you might question, ‘How do I resolve error code P0603?’ An outline of the problem and possible solutions is provided below.

What Does P0603Mean?

This indicates that the drive cycle storage information is not being transferred correctly with the engine control module. Without identifying and correcting the root cause, the vehicle will not perform at its peak performance level. In certain instances, the car may stall repeatedly and fail to start altogether.

What arePossible Symptoms of P0603?

A strong possibility that your vehicle may produce a P0603 error code if any of the following symptoms are present:

  • Rough idle
  • Check engine light lighted
  • Intermittent engine stumbling
  • Increased fuel consumption
  • Engine stalling issues
  • Other warning lights illuminated

When you perform diagnostics on your car, if you suffer one or more of the problems listed above, your vehicle may return an error code of P0603.

What areCommon Causes of Code P0603

There are a variety of reasons why you could be experiencing OBD-ii scanner error code P0603 issues, including the following:

  • A problem with the connection to the engine control module
  • The use of aftermarket tuning items Engine control module that has been damaged or is malfunctioning
  • Faulty ignition system wiring The engine control module has been damaged by water.

How you go about resolving the issue is dependent on what caused it in the first place. If the problem is caused by aftermarket parts, you may not be able to cure the problem unless the aftermarket parts are removed and the original parts are replaced with the aftermarket components.

How toFix P0603

Diagnosing P0603 KAM codes can be challenging, so take some precautions to make the task simpler:

  • Charge your battery completely to ensure that any measurements you collect are correct. Make a visual inspection of the battery cables for corrosion, damage, or loose connections
  • And Check to see that none of the wires leading to the fuse box wiring harness have been damaged. Locate and thoroughly check the engine control module, as well as any wire that leads to and from it. The voltage of the cables that give power to the engine control module should be measured. Instructions on how to wire your vehicle will be included in your service manual, as will a voltage chart. Examine the region for evidence of water entry, which might interfere with the operation of the engine control module. Replace or replace any damaged wiring, regardless of how trivial the flaws appear to be
  • If there are no symptoms of defective wiring surrounding the engine control module, you should thoroughly inspect it.

If your car is running OK and there are no other problems that can be identified other the code itself, you should have the engine control module reflashed to clear the code completely.

Other CodesRelated to the P0603

It is possible that the P0603 code will not display on its own in some instances. Other codes that are frequently related with the engine control module are as follows:

  • A control module performance problem
  • A read memory (ROM) failure in the internal control module
  • An internal control module random access memory (RAM) error
  • An internal control module memory check sum error
  • A serial communication fault
  • And a control module performance error are all coded P0607.

If you see any of these codes in addition to the P0603 error, troubleshoot them one at a time to determine the source of the problem and resolve it.

Infiniti P0603 ECM Power Supply Circuit – Car OBD Codes

For the ECM/PCM memory functions of the DTC memory, the air-fuel ratio feedback compensation value memory, the idle air volume learning value memory, and other such functions, even when the ignition switch is turned OFF, battery voltage is supplied to the ECM/PCM. OBD2 Code P0603 Infiniti definition:


Symptoms of OBD code P0603 Infiniti include the following:– Engine Light On (or Service Engine Soon Warning Light) – Engine may not start


Possible causes of OBD code P0603 Infiniti – Loose or inadequate connection between the battery terminals Insufficient battery charge– An open circuit or a short circuit in the ECM/PCM power supply circuit– ECM/PCM programming– A faulty ECM/PCM Error codes are normally activated when one or more of the following situations are detected: A memory failure has occurred within the ECM/PCM, as indicated by this code.

Possible Solutions

– Battery should be recharged. – Tighten and clean the connection between the battery terminals. – ECM/PCM was reprogrammed; ECM/PCM was replaced.

The OBD2 Code Information Be Applicable For Infiniti:

,2013 Infiniti M35h GT,2013 Infiniti JX,2013 Infiniti FX,2011 Infiniti QX,2011 Infiniti M35h,2011 Infiniti M,2011 Infiniti M,2011 Infiniti JX Concept,2011 Infiniti IPL G Coupe,2011 Infiniti EX30d,2009 Infiniti G37,2009 Infiniti FX50,2009 Infiniti FX37


1. The list of vehicle manufacturers on the right-hand side of the display screen. The Infiniti brand is represented by the ODB-ii codes that are currently in use. 2. Use the search box to look for any other OBD II Trouble Codes that may exist. In the search box, type in the five-character problem codes and hit the ‘Search’ button. Remember that a particularOBD-II code does not always represent the same thing across different vehicle manufacturers, since there are numerous different manufactures specific codes in use.

This is because not allOBD2 codes used by one manufacturer are also used by other manufacturers.

5. The material included on this website is provided solely for the purpose of providing general information. We will not be held liable for any acts you take while using your car. If you have any questions or concerns about the repairs on your car, please speak with your mechanic.

P0603 Infiniti

To resolve a P0603 problem code issue that may arise on all 2015 and later Infiniti cars, Infiniti has published a service bulletinITB16-008b. The P0603 (ECM BACK UP/CIRCUIT) fault code will be saved, and the check engine warning light will illuminate
as a result of the malfunction.

P0603 Infiniti diagnostic procedure

Infiniti suggests that you begin your diagnostic work by checking the voltage of your battery. Check to see that the battery terminals are clean and secure. When the IGN is turned on but the engine is turned off, the battery voltage must be at least 11 volts. After that, using a scan tool or code reader, remove the P0603 error code from your system. Turn off the IGN and then turn it back on for at least one second. Then, for at least 10 seconds, return the power to OFF. Repeat the ON/OFF operation a total of ten times more.

  • If the error code persists, do a full battery load and conductance test on the battery.
  • If the battery passes the initial testing, double-check all electrical connections.
  • The year is 2019.
  • Rick Muscoplat posted a blog entry on
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P0603 Infiniti ECM Power Supply Circuit – CarObdCode.Com

Circuit for the Infiniti ECM Power Supply (P0603). Possible causes include a loose or weak connection between the battery terminals. • Low battery charge • Open or shorted ECM power supply circuit • ECM programming • Faulty ECM • Low battery charge • Faulty ECM ECM Description of the technology Begin by charging the vehicle’s battery and cleaning the terminals. Once the battery has been charged and the terminals have been cleaned and secured, wipe the code from the vehicle’s memory. Depending on whether the code returns, you may need to reprogram or replace the ECM.

This indicates that the ECM has suffered an internal memory failure.

Automobiles manufactured by Infiniti include the Infiniti EX35, Infiniti FX35, Infiniti FX50, Infiniti G25, Infiniti G37, Infiniti M35, Infiniti M37, Infiniti M56, Infiniti QX56, and the Infiniti M56.

P0603 Internal Control Module Keep Alive Memory (KAM) Error

Error in the Internal Control Module Keep Alive Memory (KAM) by Mika, alias thefordmaniac, in this article

What does that mean?

This code is a general powertrain code that may be found on many vehicles. Although particular repair processes may alter significantly depending on the model, it is called general since it applies to all makes and models of automobiles manufactured after 1996. Keeping the powertrain control module (PCM) alive is accomplished by storing information about the number of driving cycles in its memory. The contents of this memory are constantly changing in response to driving and sensor inputs. When you unplug your battery, this memory is deleted, and the computer enters ‘dumb’ mode, in which it runs the engine using the built-in settings rather than the learned values based on driving inputs and habits, as well as what the engine sensors perceive.

The PCM’s memory has not been updated to reflect the new engine specifications.

This information is an adaptive formula that the PCM uses to optimize engine performance, shift fuel, adjust fuel trims, and other functions. Other internal control module fault issue codes to look out for are as follows:

  • A memory check sum error in the internal control module, a control module programming error, and an internal control module random access memory (RAM) error are all possible causes of the P0601 Internal Control Module Memory Check Sum Error. Error in the internal control module’s read-only memory (ROM)
  • P0605

A PCM with the lid removed is seen in the following photo:


The illumination of the MIL (malfunction indication lamp) will be one of the symptoms of a P0603 DTC, however there may be other symptoms as well, including but not limited to engine stall, numerous warning lights on the dashboard, module communication codes, and no start circumstances.


The following are examples of possible causes:

  • Corrosion of the battery terminals or loose connections
  • Wiring diagram for the Keep Alive Power (KAPWR) circuit
  • There is an open wire in the KAPWR circuit. PCM that has been damaged by water ingress or an internal defect
  • Fault in the charging system
  • Fault in the ignition system resulting in secondary ignition voltage interfering
  • Fault in the internal PCM software

Possible Solutions

This is a very tough problem to isolate and resolve. In my experience, the problem has been caused by both a wiring problem and a PCM problem. It is possible that the PCM was fried as a result of interference from another component. Examine the battery wires for damage. It might be something as simple as a heavily corroded termination or a loose connection, for example. Check all of the grounds, as well as the fuse box and PCM connections. Check the charging system for any problems. Continue to drive the vehicle with the alternator disconnected.

  1. Is the code still present while the alternator is not in operation?
  2. Interference from these components may be ‘thrown’ into the circuit, causing it to malfunction.
  3. While wriggling, bending, and shaking the harness all around the engine and fuse boxes, keep an eye on the voltages.
  4. This means that there is a possibility that water has gotten into the PCM casing.
  5. If no defects are discovered, it is possible that there is a problem with the PCM itself.
  6. A reflash may also be necessary since many manufacturers are continually updating the software that is accessible for your computer; therefore, the code may be corrected.

Related DTC Discussions

  • Nissan Frontier (2006 model) P0603 Hello, one day my Nissan vehicle stalled on me with the code P0603 in it. Even though the engine can still be operated with a bad idle, it cannot be driven owing to the poor idle problem, which results in insufficient power to move the truck. In addition to replacing all six spark plugs, cleaning the throttle body, checking and cleaning all six fuel injectors, and replacing both cra
  • P0603, I also changed the fuel filter. A p0603 internal ctrl mod kam error is shown on the dash of my 1996 Ford Powerstroke. What does this mean? Low boost when DTCs P100, P0603, and P1247 are present. The truck has travelled to a number of businesses, where different components have been installed here and there. There is still no solution. I’m beginning to believe that it’s the ECM. Full throttle produces just 10psi of boost, and it is equipped with a chip. Should be able to increase more than 15-20 psi Thoughts?:(
  • I require assistance with my 2007 Nissan Altima (P1610 p1611 p0603 u1001) First, I drove around on a rainy day and then came back and parked
  • Later that evening, the ac fans started to run on their own (while the car was still parked and not in use)
  • I quickly pressed the unlock button on the key and it stopped
  • Later that evening, the ac fans started to run on their own again
  • 99 Cadi Deville’s Northstar is a fictional character created by author Cadi Deville. The driver module’s p0603Ecm has identified an electrical problem that requires attention. p0603
  • 2002 Ford F250 7.3L P1273, P1280, and P1293 codes
  • P0603
  • It won’t start on my 2002 Ford F-250 with a 7.3L diesel engine. I tested the fuel pump and it was OK
  • I rebuilt the return fuel pressure needleseals
  • I installed a new fuel filter
  • And I replaced the cam sensor and the ICP sensor
  • But it still won’t start on my 2002 Ford F-250. HELP!
  • P0603 regarding the 2011 expedition Finding a wiring diagram for the PCM as well as the pin position for the maintain alive memory function is essential since I keep receiving the code and need to rectify the short. Thank you, Gerald.
  • F250SD 2000, 7.3 pcm errors, 00 f250SD P1280, P0472, P0237, P1690, P0231, P0603, P0470, P1280, P0472, P0237, P1280, P0472, P0237, P1280, P0472, P0237, P1280, P0472, P0237, P1280, P0472, P0237, P1280, P0231, P0603, P0470 Hello, everyone. Anyone have any suggestions for me? It is not possible for me to interface with PCM via VMM2 because of a bug in the VMM2. It is not possible to connect to any modules at all. Fuses are in good working order. I did run some voltage checks on the OBD2 port, which were successful. Everything appears to be in order. Now comes the exciting part: using an older scan tool, I am able to pick up various DTC codes, the most notable of which are P0603 and P0470. My 2001 7.3LI has had its check engine light on for around 3 seconds, during which time the throttle is not engaged. Following that, everything returns to normal. Had a diagnostic display the PO603 and Po470 back pressure exhaust sensors, both of which I know are 6in all the way out because I have a 6in exhaust pipe. The person at the shop claims I need a new ECM, however the Nissan code P0603 for 2012 states otherwise. Hello, My engine stalled and wouldn’t restart the day before yesterday. I phoned roadside assistance, and a technician came to check my battery. He had to replace it because it was old and lifeless. Other than the battery, there were no other issues discovered throughout the diagnostic process
  • The alternator was also in good working order. The car started straight up and operated flawlessly from the get-go. In the same way that I d
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Need more help with a p0603 code?

If you still need assistance with the P0603 error code, please ask your issue in one of our FREE vehicle repair discussion boards. Please keep in mind that this material is being provided solely for informational reasons. It is not meant to be used as repair advice, and we are not liable for any actions you take in relation to any vehicle. All of the information on this website is protected by intellectual property rights.

r/Cartalk – 09 G37x ECM Nightmare P0603

TLDR: P0603 continues to occur even after replacing the ECM, resulting in my failure to pass the state inspection readiness exam. Hello everyone, this is my first time posting on this forum in the hopes of receiving any information concerning the engine code that has been bothering my life. I purchased the vehicle from a private seller and didn’t notice the vehicle was emitting codes until after the lemon law time had expired. As a result, my automobile has been throwing the code p0603 (keep alive memory error).

  • So I do that, I reset the ECM, and I still get the p0603 error message.
  • It turned out that the vehicle had a history of ECM problems, which they assumed were caused by water damage caused by clogged sunroof drains entering the vehicle.
  • The cost of the repair was too expensive.
  • After that, p0603, it happens again.
  • I’m receiving the error p0603 again, only one day after having it back.

I’m at a complete lost on what to do. I’m by no means a mechanic; I’m simply attempting to find out more information on this because it appears to be little discussion about it on the forms that I’ve seen so far. Thank you so much for your assistance.

Error Code P0603: Internal Control Module Keep Alive Memory (KAM) Error

The Internal Control Module Keep Alive Memory (KAM) Error (Code P0603) is defined as an Internal Control Module Keep Alive Memory (KAM) Error. As a result, the PCM is operating under its default parameters rather than using the information saved from previous drive cycles to perform its tasks. This is a general issue code, which means that it applies to any car equipped with an OBD-II system, particularly those manufactured between 1996 and the current day. There are differences between manufacturers and/or models in terms of specifications for the definition, diagnosis, and repairs, among other things.


In automobiles, the PCM (powertrain control module, also known as the ECM or engine control module) is a complex computer that is in charge of managing all electrical components that are involved in the vehicle’s functioning, such as the ignition timing, fuel mix, and other parameters. The car also retains information while being driven, and it ‘learns’ how you drive so that the vehicle’s performance may be tailored to your driving requirements and the situations in which you drive. This is referred to as the KAM, or Keep Alive Memory, in some circles.

Taking the battery out of the car will delete all of the memory, placing the PCM into ‘dumb’ mode, and causing it to operate only on the built-in or default settings, rather than the learned values based on driving inputs, what sensors perceive, and driving behaviors.

Other internal control module fault codes that are connected to this include:

  • P0601 Internal Control Module Memory Check Sum Error
  • P0602 Control Module Programming
  • Error P0604 Internal Control Module Random Access Memory (RAM)
  • Error P0605 Internal Control Module Read Only Memory (ROM)
  • Error P0606 Internal Control Module Read Only Memory (ROM)
  • Error P0607 Internal Control Module Read Only Memory (ROM)

Common Symptoms

P0603, like other problem codes that are related to the internal control module, causes not only the Check Engine light to illuminate, but also additional warning lights to illuminate on the dashboard. Other signs and symptoms of this error code are as follows:

  • Hard starting or no starting circumstances
  • Engine stalling
  • Harsh or inconsistent gearbox shifting
  • Decrease in fuel economy
  • Dying while coming to a complete stop
  • Conditions like a misfire

It is possible that there are no obvious drivability indications in some circumstances.

Possible Causes

There are a variety of circumstances that might contribute to this illness, including:

  • Corrosion in the battery terminal
  • Loose connections in the battery terminal
  • Corrosion in the battery terminal Wiring diagram for the Keep Alive Power (KAPWR) circuit
  • Fault in the charging system Fault in the ignition system resulting in secondary ignition voltage interfering
  • There is an open wire in the KAPWR circuit. PCM that has been damaged by water ingress or an internal defect
  • Fault in the internal PCM software

How to Check

Batteries with corrosion and loose connections are more likely to fail than those with clean connections. Wiring diagram for the Keep Alive Power (KAPWR) circuit a problem with the charging system Secondary ignition voltage inference is caused by an ignition system problem. The KAPWR circuit has a shorted wire. PCM that has been damaged due to water infiltration or an internal problem; A error has occurred within the PCM software.

How to Fix

The following are some frequent solutions for this problem code:

  • Connectors, components, and wire should be replaced if they are broken or malfunctioning, and all connectors should be secured properly. Individual control modules are being repaired or replaced as they become malfunctioning. Changing out a malfunctioning PCM

In terms of defects, ‘Limp’ mode and ‘Dumb’ mode are diametrically opposed. The PCM’s memory has not been updated to reflect the changes in engine settings. Rather than having hard-coded numbers, it is the constantly changing values that contribute to improved fuel efficiency, a smoother run, and easier beginning in the first place. The information from the KAM is included into an adaptive formula that is used by the PCM to optimize engine performance, fuel trims, fuel shifting, and other functions.

Additionally, when the problem is caused by faulty PCM ground circuits, some customers choose to replace the PCM in its entirety.

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