Pour point and pour point depressants? (Solution)

Pour point depressants are used to allow the use of petroleum based mineral oils at lower temperatures. The lowest temperature at which a fuel or oil will pour is called a pour point. High-quality pour point depressants can lower a pour point of an oil additive by as much as 40°C.

Which feature of pour point depressant help in reducing pour point of an oil?

(a) Pour point depressants Certain high molecular weight polymers function by inhibiting the formation of a wax crystal structure that would prevent oil flow at low temperatures.

How do you reduce the pour point of lubricant?

Additives such as pour point improvers (paraffin-alkylated naphthalenes and phenols as well as polymethacrylates) can additionally reduce the pour point of a lubricant. These delay the contraction of the paraffin crystals.

Why should pour point be low?

The pour point, or the temperature at which a lubricant ceases to flow, is important in appraising flow properties at low temperature. As such, it can become the determining factor in selecting one lubricant from among a group with otherwise identical properties.

What is PPD in lubricant?

One of the most important additivies in this scope is Pour Point Depressant. This additive consist of high molecular weight methacrylate polymer and wax-containing components. It allows the oil to continue to flow at very low temperatures, prevents wax crystallization in the oil, and depresses the pour point.

What does high pour point mean?

It is defined as the minimum temperature in which the oil has the ability to pour down from a beaker. In crude oil a high pour point is generally associated with a high paraffin content, typically found in crude deriving from a larger proportion of plant material.

What is the pour point of fuel oil?

Pour point of fuel oil is the Temperature at which it solidifies or congeals. Pour Point is the temperature at which a liquid becomes semisolid and loses its flowing characteristics. As the paraffin content is high in crude oil, thus it has a high Pour Point.

How do you determine the pour point of oil?

ASTM D97 is a manual method used to determine the pour point of any petroleum-based oil. In this method, the oil sample is placed into a vessel and pre-heated, and this is followed by a cooling stage so that the oil is at a temperature of 9 °C (48.2 °F) above its expected pour point.

What is the difference between cloud point and pour point?

Cloud point is the minimum temperature at which the first crystal formation starts. Pour point is the minimum temperature below which a liquid loses its flow characteristics.

What is VI improver?

VI improvers (also known as viscosity modifiers) are additives that increase the viscosity of the fluid throughout its useful temperature range. This article is meant to provide you with a better understanding of viscosity index improvers, what they are, what they do, and why they are important.

Why is pour point important?

Pour point indicates a liquid’s lower temperature properties. If the surrounding temperature is less than the pour point, it cannot be transferred through a pipeline. Pour point is more significant for Lubricating oils. Pour points provide the lowest temperature for that fluid at which it can transfer by pouring.

What is cloud point in diesel?

2 diesel cools during colder, overnight temperatures, it may reach “cloud point,” when wax crystals develop in the fuel. The fuel will look cloudy and crystals can plug the fuel filter, resulting in poor starts, engine hesitation, stalling and even engine damage.

What is the difference between pour point and freezing point?

Pour point is the temperature at which a petroleum product will no longer flow. Freezing point is a measurement of the lowest temperature at which an aviation fuel will remain free of solid hydrocarbon crystals that could restrict the flow of fuel through filters.

What is boundary lubrication?

Boundary lubrication is defined as that in which the sliding surfaces are separated by a very thin molecular film of lubricant, so that the chemical and physical natures of the surfaces and the lubricant are of major importance.

What is wax inhibitor?

Wax inhibitors such as pour point depressants and wax dispersants are used to chemically modify the wax solid structure thus reducing the tendency of the wax crystals to interlock and form three dimensional network growths [9,10]. The main function of wax inhibitors is to impede the paraffin growth.

What is the purpose of the anti foam agent additive in engine oil?

Anti-foam additive is used to prevent formation of foam or to break up foam already formed.

Pour Point and Pour Point Depressants

It is the lowest temperature at which an oil is seen to flow by gravity in a particular laboratory test that is known as the pour point of oil. To be more specific, the pour point is 3
degrees Celsius (5 degrees Fahrenheit) above the temperature at which oil does not move while a lab sample container is held horizontally for 5 seconds. The pour point of an oil is a measure of the oil’s cold-temperature characteristics. While this definition includes the lowest temperature at which oil will flow to bearings in a piece of equipment, it does not include the lowest working temperature for a hydraulic oil or the lowest temperature at which gears get acceptable lubrication.

The cloud point is the estimated low temperature at which the oil becomes hazy as a result of the solidification of wax crystals inside the oil, as determined by experiment.

The cloud point may be determined using a variety of methods, one of which is ASTM D5772-10.

Pour Point Depressant Additives

Pour point depressants are polymers that allow oil and lubricants to flow at extremely low wintertime temperatures without substantial wax formation. They also allow the oil to remain pumpable even at these extremely low wintertime temperatures (flowable). They are often found in paraffinic base oils, where they can be employed in situations where extremely low machine starter temperatures are possible. Pour point depressants are used in the production of the majority of paraffinic motor oils.

How Pour Point Depressants Work

The contact between crystallized wax and oil is altered as a result of this modification.

Compounds Used in Pour Point Depressants

Alkylated wax naphthalene, polymethacrylates, alkylated wax phenol are all examples of alkylated waxes.

Pour Point Depressants

Petroleum products such as crude and heavy fuel oils are complex mixes of different hydrocarbons, including paraffins, aromatics, naphthenes, resins, and asphaltenes among others. When chilled, long chained paraffins have a tendency to crystallize, resulting in significant sedimentation of the paraffin. PPD formulations are used to keep crude or heavy fuel oil flowing through pipes in order to minimize sedimentation or even pipeline obstruction. Clariant offers cutting-edge solutions such as DODIFLOW® to assist customers in successfully addressing these difficulties.

Those crudes frequently have a high Pour Point and a high wax content, are mostly sweet, and are purchased and sold on the spot market the majority of the time.

Opportunity Crudes must be handled prior to refining in order to bring the Pour Points into compliance with pipeline and storage regulations. Our PPDs have been effectively used to decrease the Pour Points of a variety of crude oil grades, resulting in improved handling and storage performance.

Name Region API*typical WATapprox. PP untreated approx. PP treated approx.
Escravos Nigeria 35,6 24 -3 -12
Okwori Nigeria 36,3 20 12 -12
Skarv Blend North Sea 37,2 30 -12 -27
Okono Nigeria 40,8 21 15 -12
Yoho Nigeria 39,9 26 15 -15
Qua Iboe Nigeria 35,7 21 12 -27
Brent North Sea 37,8 -24
Amenam Nigeria 38,7 23 15 -30
Norne Norway 31,0 39 21 6
Triton UK 37,9 -3 -18
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Based on the American Petroleum Institute’s Scale for indicating the lightness or heaviness of crude oils, a typical order of magnitude is shown. Refineries are advocating or creating new fuel mixes that include heavy and light streams in order to prevent a substantial increase in gasoline prices while still complying with the new sulfur emission regulations. These hybrid fuels are becoming increasingly popular among ship owners who do not wish to or cannot afford the installation of expensive exhaust treatment equipment on their vessels.

  1. Clariant Refinery Services was one of the first companies to see the worldwide trend toward reduced emissions and created a variety of specialized additives for new types of marine diesel.
  2. We develop cutting-edge products that lower the pour point of marine fuels without causing reversion in our customers’ fuels.
  3. It is necessary to convey the majority of them via pipeline from the bore hole to the processing plant, port storage facility, or refinery.
  4. Pour point depressants from our company are significantly more cost-effective than other solutions for pipeline transportation.
  5. Our specialists will collaborate with you to guarantee that your crude transportation project receives the necessary assistance.
  6. The cold flow characteristics of different fuels within this range can vary dramatically.
  7. Due to the high wax content of some crude oils, some diesel cuts have high pour points, therefore pipeline standards and local regulations may demand the use of PPDs for such diesel fuels.

Clariant is specialized in the development of these customised PPD, with the goal of using PPD at the most cost-effective injection rates possible.

Contact us today.

There are a plethora of various forms of biodiesel available for purchase.

For the most part, biodiesel is utilized in regular diesel engines either as a mix or as a pure fuel.

In the case of larger B-contents (for example, 20 percent bio content) or when handling pure substances, such as before blending or while shipping or storing pure biodiesel, pour point depressants are utilized.

B100 (pure biodiesel) is also utilized in some engines, however it necessitates the change of the pour point and cloud point. Clariant has produced PPDs that are specifically intended for use with biodiesel.

Effect of Pour Point Depressants on the Impedance Spectroscopy of Waxy Crude Oil

When waxy crude oil is treated with a pour point depressant (PPD), the cold flowability of the crude oil can be greatly improved, allowing for the safe and efficient transit of waxy crude oils via pipelines. PPD treatment has been shown to alter the electrical characteristics of waxy oils, such as the dielectric constant, -potential, and other electrical properties, among other things. According to a previous study, wax precipitation causes a significant change in the impedance spectroscopy (IS) of a waxy oil, where a second semicircle appears in the Nyquist diagram and grows in size with increasing amount of precipitated wax.

In this investigation, we discovered that the addition of PPD may greatly lower the second semicircle, and that the more efficient the PPD is, the greater the reduction in the second semicircle.

It has been established that there is a favorable association between the reduction in viscosity and the reduction in resistance of wax particles generated by PPD.

A novel evidence for understanding the functional mechanism of PPD is provided by this study, which explains why flowability improves with the inclusion of PPD from an IS perspective.

Pour Point Depressant (PPD) selection and use

Selection and application of PPD are critical for guaranteeing excellent performance and extending the lifespan of oil formulations at low temperatures by minimizing equipment damage. Evonik presented extensive information on pour point depressants, based on their more than 70 years of experience in the field. A lubricant’s capacity to flow under low temperature and low shear conditions is critical to the functioning of engines and equipment that will be used in cold environments. A mineral oil lubricant formulation will display poor low temperature qualities if the pour point depressant is not selected and treated at the right rate.

  1. Almost all paraffinic mineral oil base stocks contain trace levels of waxy elements, which is common in the industry.
  2. The cloud point is defined as the temperature at which this happens.
  3. If the temperature is reduced sufficiently, the plates will eventually grow together to form a three-dimensional network that completely immobilizes the oil.
  4. The pour point is defined as the lowest temperature at which the oil is still fluid in nature.
  5. A fire beneath the sumps of automobiles was an obvious answer, and as ridiculous as it may appear now, stories of fires being set under the sumps of vehicles are true.
  6. Another option was to use one of numerous naturally existing components, such as asphaltenic resins or microcrystalline waxes, which were removed at various stages of the refining process, instead of introducing them.
  7. Pour point depressants are substances that are used to lower the pour point of oil because they lower the pour point of oil.
  8. Natural hydrocarbon pour point depressants, which are all waxy compounds in their own right, gave strong indications to the early synthetic attempts because of their structural similarities.
  9. Because of this discovery, new waxy compounds were investigated for use as possibilities, and in 1937, Rohm and Haas invented the first polymeric pour point depressants, polyalkyl methacrylates (PAMAs), which were based on waxy alkyl groups once again.

However, while chlorinated wax is the most well-known example of small-molecule chemistry, the vast majority of commercial products are moderate- to high-molecular-weight polymers, such as polyesters, polyacrylates, acrylate-styrene copolymers, esterified olefin- or styrene maleic anhydride copolymers, alkylated polystyrene copolymers, and vinyl acetate-fum Chemistry of polymeric pour point depressantsEven after 75 years, polyalkyl methacrylates (the first of the polymeric pour point depressants) are still considered to be the finest chemistry available today, owing to their vast market share globally, which greatly outstrips that of alternatives.

  1. The molecular structure of polymers, as well as their great flexibility in chemical structure, are the fundamental reasons for this universal choice.
  2. Due to the fact that the majority of blenders prefer to utilize a single product for a broad variety of lubricant applications, the molecular weights of the majority of the product line tend to be concentrated at either end of the spectrum.
  3. As a result, when one adds a pour point depressant to a lubricant, one is really adding wax to the system, which is undesirable.
  4. Figure 3 depicts a typical concentration response curve that may be derived from a vertical slice of Figure 1.
  5. Although this particular example is the ASTM D97 Pour Point Test, the response curve’s form is general and may be found in many other tests as well.
  6. Increasing concentration may provide some extra, albeit little, benefit.
  7. Further increases in the concentration of the pour point depressant are, in fact, merely adding more wax to the system, which finally results in a reversal of performance.
  8. Pour point reversion is the term used to describe this phenomena.
  9. Many wax-related phenomena are dependent on the passage of time and the temperature history of the wax.

The wax solution acts like a supercooled liquid, in which wax crystallization occurs over an extended period of time, resulting in the conversion of a fluid system to a gel state. Factors that influence the selection of PPDs and the rate at which they are administered include:

  • Test techniques needed by various requirements include: base stock, waxy components (such as detergents and friction modifiers), viscosity modifiers, and the procedures required by the specifications itself. Reversion of performance at low temperatures
  • Requirements for pumpability of aged oil
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Guide to choosing a PPD When testing pour point depressants on lubricants that are completely formulated but do not include pour point depressants, the results are the most accurate. Most of the time, the base oil used in lubricants is a blend of two or more base stocks. A pour point depressant with one level of WIF is optimal for one base stock component, whilst a different level of WIF is optimal for the other base stock component (and vice versa). If an additional component is added to the mix, such as a heavier or a brighter stock, the issue might become far more complicated.

  1. It is possible that any addition with a hydrocarbon structure, which is wax-like, will have a significant impact on low-temperature performance.
  2. These additional ‘wax-like’ additives have the potential to contribute to the creation of the wax structure to a greater or lesser extent.
  3. Since a result, it is critical to take into account all of a lubricant’s cold temperature requirements, as a successful result in one low-temperature test does not imply success in another.
  4. While it is theoretically feasible to determine the optimal pour point depressant for each product, this is clearly not a realistic proposition.
  5. However, with many formulations, a single pour point depressant may be sufficient to cover all of a plant’s requirements if the dose is increased.
  6. One other important PPD factor that has changed significantly over the past decade is the low temperature performance of engine oils during oxidation.
  7. Because the oxidized oil contains polar molecules that can form structures when exposed to freezing temperatures, the PPD must be capable of withstanding both the crystallization of wax species and the agglomeration of polar molecules in the oil.

Christoph Wincierz, Global OEM Relation Manager at Evonik Oil Additives Because Pour Point is a measure of low temperature fluidity of oils, it is likely that the person relying on it underestimates the effect of cooling circumstances on the crystallization of waxes in the oil, and in particular the pace at which they cool.

  1. Because of a long history of failed engines and transmissions, the industry has begun to go beyond Pour Point to tests that use a gradual cooling technique, such as the MRV-TP1 for engine oils and the Brookfield for transmission fluids.
  2. Oil Additives Sales and Marketing Specialists at Sümbül Engin Oil Additives Because basic oils alone are insufficient to fulfill the tasks that are anticipated of a lubricant, additives are employed to improve the qualities of the oil and to avoid negative consequences from occurring.
  3. This additive is composed of molecules with a high molecular weight.
  4. Because of this, the oil may continue to flow even at extremely low temperatures, and wax crystallization in the oil is prevented, as is the pour point being lowered.
  5. The first step is to select the appropriate product (taking into account the base oil and other additives used), and the second step is to accurately calculate the amount of product to be used.

If this substance is not utilized appropriately, it may induce an undesirable response. The Viscoplex range from Evonik is recommended by ADCO Petroleum Additives for achieving the optimum results.


When formulating finished lubricants, lubricant formulators employ a range of distinct addition components to achieve varied performance characteristics.

Additive Components

When oil is oxidized in the presence of heat and air, it becomes acidic, resulting in the creation of engine sludge and varnish. Antioxidants help to prevent this acidification. Antioxidants interfere with this chemical reaction, resulting in a significant reduction in the rate of oil degradation and an extension of the oil’s useful life. Antirust additives are substances that are used to prevent the formation of rust on metal surfaces by producing a protective surface coating. Antiwear agents provide a protective layer on metal surfaces that come into touch with one another, minimizing scuffing and wear, particularly on engine valve gear, cams, and followers.

Cleaning agents used to neutralize acidic blow-by gases, regulate rust and lacquer buildup on engine components such as pistons, and prevent deposits from forming on these components.

The use of dispersants is to suspend solid pollutants in oil, to prevent and disperse sludge, soot, and other insolubles, and to decrease the formation of engine varnish layer in the engine.

Pour Point depressants

A pour point depressant is a chemical compound that is used to inhibit wax crystals in lubricants from agglomerating or fusing together when exposed to low temperatures. Flow properties of lubricants can be severely altered if they are not appropriately protected by pour point depressants, which can have a significant influence on engine performance and protection. A solution to cold engine performance is provided by the Infineum V300 family of pour point depressants, which are available in a wide range of applications and base stock selections.

As a consequence, improved capability for simpler starting, less engine wear, and longer engine life are achieved.

We assist you in responding quickly to difficulties.

It is the stuff that successful businesses are constructed of.

Pour point depressants from Evonik.

A complete series of high-performance PPDs with a variety of applications. Under cold regions, the better wax crystallization management provided by VISCOPLEX® pour point depressants (PPDs) ensures optimal oil flow behavior, allowing cars and equipment to run smoothly even in the most unfavorable weather conditions. VISCOPLEX® PPDs assist contemporary lubricants meet the most stringent low-temperature viscometric requirements while maintaining resilience over a wide range of base stock groups, performance packages, and application types.

Low-temperature additives such as VISCOPLEX® offer value to formulations by increasing their effectiveness. The following are the advantages of VISCOPLEX® PPD technology:

  • Customized solutions that deliver improved performance while maintaining optimal treatment rates
  • With extensive expertise and prompt technical assistance, we are able to provide a comprehensive spectrum of low-temperature testing capabilities throughout Europe, North America, and Asia Pacific. With a global supply and production footprint, logistics flexibility is ensured.

PPD solutions for GF-6

Engineers are developing the next generation of engine oils. OEMs in North America have developed ILSAC GF-6 engine oil requirements for gasoline-fueled passenger cars, which is the next category of oil specifications. According to the planned modifications, this new motor oil category would boost performance criteria, which will require engine oil additives to contribute to fuel economy, engine cleanliness, and decreased wear in addition to other benefits. New requirements necessitate the implementation of improvements in performance and testing for the generation of both used and old oil.

All of these rules indicate that additional effort and money must be invested in the development of a dependable and resilient engine oil that will continue to function even when exposed to severe temperatures.

Evonik’s team of experts has more than 70 years of expertise in the development of highly innovative, low-temperature polyalkyl methacrylate (PAMA) technology.

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Over a decade of extensive research and testing resulted in the development of the ASTM D 7528 Romaszewski Oil Bench Oxidation (ROBO) test, which assists customers in screening PPDs and developing formulations that meet not only the current GF-5 specifications, but also the proposed GF-6/PC-11 specifications.

Effect of pour point depressant (PPD) and the nanoparticles on the wax deposition, viscosity and shear stress for Malaysian crude oil

AbstractThe formation of wax can result in an increase in pressure drop, obstructions in pipelines, and interference with the operation of valves and equipment, resulting in billions of dollars in financial losses. Pour point depressant (PPD) is a wax treatment technique that is commonly used in the oil industry to change the qualities of crude oil, such as viscosity, wax appearance temperature (WAT), and pour point, by lowering the pour point of the oil. According to the findings of this study, the performance of PPD and nanoparticle sodium cloisite Na+ was evaluated in order to determine their effects on the viscosity, shear stress, and wax deposition of Malaysian crude oil using the Brookfield DV-III viscometer and cold finger equipment, respectively.

The effectiveness of PPD and PPD/Nanoparticle blends is affected by the temperature of the cold finger, the duration of the experiment, and the rotation rate of the impeller.

As a result, the PPD/Nanoparticle combination is able to lower viscosity effectively and provides a greater PIE when compared to PPD alone.

Lubricant Formulation

Using these pour point depressant technologies, you may extend the working temperature range of your lubricant formulation in extremely cold conditions. Can’t seem to locate the proper product?

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Next Generation Pour Point Depressants Based on Novel Polymer Modifications

Using the Skip Nav to Get to Your Destination The SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition is held every year in San Francisco. The dates are October 9–11, 2017. San Antonio, Texas, United States An abstract of this paper was given at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition in San Antonio, Texas, United States of America, in October 2017. SPE-187386-MS is the paper number. Originally published on October 9, 2017.


Current logistical and pipeline infrastructure constraints make waxy crude oil transit and production difficult, necessitating a step change in the chemistry necessary to ameliorate crude oil composition concerns, which is currently impossible. Pour point depressants (PPD) or wax inhibitors are often used in the prevention of wax formation. A novel technique makes advantage of a specific hydrophobe alteration in normal polymer systems, which greatly broadens the range of applications for these materials.

  • When used to crude oil production and transportation systems in harsh conditions, pour point depressants (PPDs), which are generally solvent-based polymer mixes, can reduce the viscosity and pour point of the crude oil produced and transported.
  • With the use of model oil samples, the performance of these novel hydrophobically modified PPDs was compared to that of normal polymer systems.
  • The results of the performance experiments revealed that by adding 2-alkyl branching into the polymer system, the overall performance of such PPDs would be improved, but the pour point of the PPD itself will be reduced significantly.
  • The Society of Petroleum Engineers has copyright protection for 2017.

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As a result of current logistical and pipeline infrastructure constraints, waxy crude oil transit and production are difficult, necessitating an evolution in the chemistry necessary to alleviate crude oil composition concerns. Pour point depressants (PPD) or wax inhibitors are typically used in the prevention of wax buildup in the mold. A novel technique makes use of a specific hydrophobe alteration in normal polymer systems, which greatly broadens the range of applications for these materials.

Pour point depressants, which are mostly solvent-based polymer mixes, are occasionally used in crude oil production and transportation systems in harsh situations where the viscosity and pour point of the PPD itself are crucial parameters to consider.

With the use of model oil samples, the performance of these novel hydrophobically modified PPDs was compared to that of regular polymer systems.

The results of the performance experiments revealed that by incorporating 2-alkyl branching into the polymer system, the overall performance of such PPDs would be improved, but the pour point of the PPD itself will be reduced significantly.

The Society of Petroleum Engineers retains ownership of the copyright until 2017. The following article is available for download or buy upon payment.


Point de soutènement Depressant is an Alkyl Methacrylate that is approved for use in base oils because of its low flammability. A wide range of engine oils, gear oils, and hydraulic fluids are strongly recommended for use with this additive system. It is also good in controlling low viscosity when shear is applied to the solution. They are utilized as wax inhibitors and crystal growth modifiers in the production of heavy and light crude oils, respectively.

  • Controlling low viscosity under shear conditions is a successful use of this technique. It contributes to the reduction of the pour point of crude oil
  • It also contributes to the reduction of plastic viscosity. In a wide range of engine oils, gear oils, hydraulic fluids, and other fluids, it is highly recommended for usage.


Sr. Product TDS MSDS
1 ONYFLOW 2124
2 ONYFLOW 2125
3 ONYFLOW 2142
4 ONYFLOW 2143
5 ONYFLOW 2118
6 ONYFLOW 2130
7 ONYFLOW 2131

Please keep in mind that the goods described above are the most popular. We may tailor the goods to meet the specific needs of our clients in terms of CST Viscosity and Shear Stability Index (SSI).

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