Steering angle sensor?

The Steering Angle Sensor is an important part of a vehicle’s safety system. It transmits the steering wheel’s rate of turn, wheel angle, and other important data to the specific vehicle’s computer. If there is a fault in the signal, the computer can disable the vehicle’s stability control.

  • The steering angle sensor (SAS) is a critical part of the ESC system that measures the steering wheel position angle and rate of turn. A scan tool can be used to obtain this data in degrees. The SAS is located in a sensor cluster in the steering column.

What happens when a steering angle sensor goes bad?

When the sensor is faulty, misaligned, or damaged, the information it reads and sends to the vehicle’s on board computer is inaccurate. In most cases, this will lead to a “loose” condition in the steering wheel, where the amount of steering input you provide is not reciprocated by the action of the vehicle.

Can you drive with a bad steering angle sensor?

A faulty steering angle sensor will relay wrong messages to your steering wheel which can prevent you from making accurate turns while driving and this can cause you to veer off the road or run into other vehicles on the road or any other thing for that matter.

How do you know if your steering angle sensor is bad?

Bad Steering Angle Sensor Symptoms

  1. Check Engine Light.
  2. Traction Control Light Illuminates.
  3. Heavy Steering Wheel Turning.
  4. Car Acts Strange After Wheel Alignment.

Can a steering angle sensor cause limp mode?

BTW – a bad steering sensor should not cause your transmission to go into limp mode. It will affect your traction control, but even your ABS brakes should still function correctly. It just won’t intervene properly to get you out of a serious loss of traction, like taking a curve too fast on wet pavement.

How do you test the steering angle sensor?

To test the SAS, you have to back probe a connector that is typically under the steering column. As the steering wheel is turned 360 degrees, the SAS produces a signal that toggles between 0 and 5 volts. As the wheel is turned lock-to-lock, the voltage will reach 5 volts three times and 0 volts three times.

What does an angle sensor do?

The Steering Angle Sensor is an important part of a vehicle’s safety system. It transmits the steering wheel’s rate of turn, wheel angle, and other important data to the specific vehicle’s computer. If there is a fault in the signal, the computer can disable the vehicle’s stability control.

Where is the steering wheel position sensor located?

A steering position sensor (also called a steering angle sensor) may not be the most exciting part of a car, but along with brakes and the suspension system, it’s an important part as far as safety goes. It’s a donut-shaped sensor located in the steering column under the dash in GM vehicle.

Is a clock spring the same as a steering angle sensor?

Is a clock spring the same as a steering angle sensor? – Quora. Those two are not the same. The purpose of the clock spring is to allow the steering wheel to turn while also being able to make an electrical connection. So basically it is an electrical connector.

What does SAS reset mean?

Performing a Steering Angle Sensor Reset The procedure resets the steering angle to match the vehicle’s new thrust line after the alignment has been completed. A steering angle reset has become a necessary last step in a wheel alignment.

How do I calibrate my steering angle sensor?

Calibration is normally done with a scan tool. Sometimes the vehicle will need to be on an alignment rack. The calibration process is normally done by putting the wheels in the straight forward position, and then zeroing out the sensor with a scan tool.

How do you initialize the steering angle sensor?


  1. Inspect the wheel alignment, inflation pressure, and the installation condition of the steering wheel.
  2. Connect the negative battery cable.
  3. Turn the ignition switch to the ON position.
  4. Confirm that the DSC indicator light illuminates and that the DSC OFF light flashes.

Making sense of sensors: steering angle sensor

Hi, Most of the time, when a resistor fails, the blower motor continues to run at a high speed. Anything is, nevertheless, conceivable in this world. To begin, find the fuse panel in the junction box of the car. Picture 1 is an example of what I mean. Afterwards, as shown in picture 2, examine fuses 10 and 11. It is necessary to check that the fuses are in proper working order before proceeding. Picture 3 shows what I mean. Figure 4 illustrates the procedure to be followed. Some links that you might find useful are as follows: After determining whether or not there is electricity, you must determine whether or not the power is finding its way through the resistor and into the motor.

Replacing the resistor should be done if no power is exiting the resister.

You should suspect a faulty switch if the relays are working properly, and you should check for electricity to the switch.

Here are the directions for your particular car.

  1. Installation and removal of furniture 1st, remove the blower unit from the vehicle.
  2. 2.
  3. In the same way that removal occurs in the reverse sequence, installation occurs in the same way that it does.
  4. Inform us of your findings as soon as possible.
  5. AT 7:19 p.m.
  • Sensors for yaw rate, lateral acceleration, wheel speed, steering wheel angle/steering torque, and other parameters.

These sensors rely on one another to provide the ESC module (which is normally a component of the ABS module) with precise information about the steering wheel’s connection to the wheels, such as the rate of turn or the amount of traction. For this reason, anytime there is a modification to the steering system, it is critical that the steering wheel angle sensor be reset or calibrated to ensure that appropriate information is sent. Many vehicles today are equipped with variable effort power steering, EPS (Electric Power Steering), and ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) such as LKA (Lane Keep Assist), as well as semi-autonomous driving systems, all of which rely on accurate information from the steering angle/steering torque sensor to function correctly.

How steering angle and steering torque sensors work

The steering angle sensor (SAS) recognizes where the driver want to guide the car by aligning the steering wheel’s angle with the vehicle’s wheel rotational angle. The steering angle sensor, which is located within the steering column, is always comprised of more than one sensor that is bundled together in a single unit for redundancy, accuracy, and diagnostics. When it comes to steering input angle and turn direction, analog sensors rely on voltage differences to provide information, whereas digital sensors rely on an LED light to calculate the steering input angle and turn direction.

Aside from that, the SAS offers information on how quickly the steering wheel is being twisted.

ESC will read a high rate of wheel rotation when traveling at highway speeds as a sign that the vehicle has lost control of its intended direction and will activate the brakes.

As the driver turns the steering wheel/steering shaft, it behaves similarly to a torsion bar in that it bends very little in response.

How electronic stability control works

The information received by the ESC module from the yaw, lateral accelerometer, SAS, steering torque sensors, and wheel speed sensors is then compared against information stored in software within the ESC module to determine whether information is more accurate. If there are any discrepancies in the information, the ESC will aid the driver in correcting the car so that he or she may keep control of the vehicle. In other cases, such as when the ESC senses a lack of steering control, it automatically instructs the ECM to limit engine torque.

If torque reduction fails to restore directional control to the vehicle, the ESC/ABS module applies the brakes to the appropriate wheels to assist in restoring directional control to the vehicle.

Depending on how far the angle is wrong, this might cause the ESC system to be disabled or, even worse, force the wheel to turn in an unanticipated direction when the angle is off.

Symptoms of a bad or failing steering angle sensor

In order to do this comparison, the information received by the ESC module from the yaw and lateral accelerometers, SAS, steering torque sensors, and wheel speed sensors is compared to information stored in the ESC module’s software database. ESC will aid the driver by rectifying any inconsistencies in the information so that he or she can keep control of the vehicle. In other cases, such as when the ESC senses a lack of steering control, it automatically instructs the ECM to decrease engine torque.

The ESC/ABS module will apply brakes to the appropriate wheels if torque reduction does not succeed in restoring vehicle control.

After an alignment or after a replacement item has been installed, the SAS of the car must be re-calibrated, or else the driver would be continually at odds with the ESC.

The SAS may even need to be reset on some vehicles after the battery has been unplugged.

  • When the Traction Control Light or the Check Engine Light illuminates, it means that something is wrong with the vehicle.

A sensor that begins to fail will most likely collect or send information that is erroneous, or if the sensor fails completely, no information will be captured at all. There are some inconsistencies in the information from the SAS that is transmitted to the ESC, and this results in an error code being sent to the vehicle’s engine control module (ECM), which subsequently illuminates a warning light on the dashboard. Most automobiles will have a Traction Control Light illuminated, however some cars may have a Check Engine Light illuminated instead of, or in addition to, the Traction Control Light.

It is indicated by these warning lights that the vehicle’s electronic stability control system (ESC) has been deactivated and that it should be taken in for servicing.

  • After an alignment or steering part replacement, there may be some play or irregular movement in the steering wheel.

It is possible that the sensor’s information collected and transmitted to the ESC module will be wrong if it is mounted incorrectly, damaged, or malfunctioning. Because of this, the electric power steering module (EPS) might supply steering input or adjustments at the incorrect moment, which will most commonly result in the steering wheel feeling loose or adding play to it. This occurs as a result of the amount of steering input you provide not being correctly sent to the wheels. If you ever get the sensation that there is a disconnect between the steering wheel and the actual steering of the automobile, you should take your vehicle in for a service examination.

Make careful to double-check with the technician before getting into the vehicle and driving it on the highway.

Steering angle sensor reset

Over 40 million vehicles on the road today are equipped with electronic stability control systems (ESCs), which necessitate the recalibration of the steering angle sensor after a wheel alignment or the installation of a suspension or steering part, as recommended by the vehicle’s original manufacturer. Depending on the vehicle, there are two different methods for resetting the steering angle sensor: Some automobiles have the ability to adjust the SAS automatically by merely moving the steering wheel from lock to lock to center.

  1. The following time the vehicle is driven in a straight line for a certain length of time, which is normally only a few seconds at highway speed, some newer cars with more advanced wheel speed sensors may automatically reset their own SAS.
  2. The SAS reset feature of a scan tool is incorporated into some types of alignment equipment, removing the requirement for the technician to utilize a scan tool once an alignment has been completed.
  3. When in doubt, please consult the manufacturer’s service manual for the right process for resetting the steering angle sensor on your vehicle.
  4. Our goal is to provide a one-stop shop for all of your driving needs.
  5. Please get in touch with us right away if you would like to join up for a course on steering and suspension.

Steering Angle Sensor Basics

Most likely, you will never have to open a steering angle sensor (SAS) cluster to perform a repair on it.

This sensor, on the other hand, should not be a mystery. In order to be effective at ABS and stability control diagnostics, it is necessary to understand how sensors measure angles and information.

Why Measure Steering Angle?

The angle of the steering wheel may be utilized to establish the direction in which the front wheels are oriented on its own. Using the yaw, accelerometer, and wheel speed sensors in conjunction with other bits of information, it is feasible to determine the dynamics of the vehicle. In order to assess the driver’s intentions, how the vehicle is behaving, and which corrections may be performed using the ABS hydraulic control unit, the stability control system uses the information it collects.

How is the angle measured?

It is possible to determine the steering angle with optical sensors, by analyzing the Hall effect, and with other technologies as well. The steering wheel’s movement is measured by these sensors in degrees of rotation.

What is the Difference Between Analog and Digital?

Analog SASs are comparable to throttle position sensors in their functionality. It is possible to test SASs using a port located behind the steering column, which is wired with a 5-volt reference, chassis ground, and signal outputs. With each rotation of the steering wheel, the SAS generates an electrical signal, which alternates between 0 and 5 volts while the wheel is rotated 360 degrees. With meters linked to the two SAS sensors, it is possible to monitor the signal ranging from 0 to 5 volts in voltage.

If the readings from the two sensors are the same, it is possible that the two sensors have been shorted together.

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Digital steering angle sensors monitor the angle and convert it into information that may be communicated with other modules through a serial data bus or by a standalone connection with the steering wheel.

Electric power steering, intelligent lamps, and even stop/start systems can all benefit from the utilization of this data PID.

Why Two Sensors?

In the majority of circumstances, a single sensor would suffice. Only one crankshaft position sensor, one wheel speed sensor per wheel, and one output sensor per gearbox are used in this configuration. The steering angle sensor, on the other hand, is made up of two or three sensors that are bundled together. The only additional sensors on a car of this type are the throttle angle sensor and the gas pedal, if the vehicle is equipped with throttle by wire technology. The use of many sensors is justified by the need for redundancy, accuracy, and diagnostics.

The vast majority of sensors are bundled together in a single device.

In conjunction with one another, the two signals can offer a more precise assessment on the locations of the wheels and how quickly the positions are changing. The correctness of the signal outputs is ensured by comparing the two signals together.

Wiring Problems

On some high-end vehicles equipped with power steering wheel adjustments, one of the most typical concerns encountered is the movement of the steering wheel to make entrance and exit simpler. Unfortunately, this movement has the potential to cause damage to the steering angle sensor’s wiring harness. When the wiring is broken, it is possible that occasional difficulties will occur.

Why do they need calibration?

Several automobiles need that the SAS be reset or re-calibrated after an alignment is completed or when elements in the steering system are repaired or replaced. There are three sorts of reset procedures: systems that self-calibrate on their own, cars that require the pressing of certain wires or buttons, and systems that require the use of a scan tool to calibrate. While most cars can identify if they are moving in a straight line if the SAS is out of calibration, when the angle is too far off, the ESC may become deactivated.

In terms of scan tools, there are several possibilities for resetting SASs.

However, most instruments require that the calibration be conducted on a flat surface and that the calibration be completed with a lock-to-lock rotation.

Steering-angle sensor

It is mounted to the steering shaft, and its hub gear wheel transfers the rotating movement of the shaft to two measurement gear wheels, which are located on either side of the shaft. A magnet is installed in each measuring gear wheel, and the direction of the magnet’s field varies in response to the rotational movement of the gear wheel. A GMR sensor element is situated beneath each magnet, and it is responsible for detecting the angle position of the magnet above it. The analog values of the GMR components are transformed directly on the circuit to digital information, which is then transferred to the CPU through a serial link to be processed.

It is feasible to determine the absolute steering-wheel angle from the location of the measurement gears using mathematic functions and a graphical representation.

Without the use of a rotation counter, this measuring method allows the measurement of the whole angle range of a number of steering-wheel rotations.

Steering Angle Sensor Reset

Today’s over 40 million automobiles on the road require a reset/recalibration of the steering angle sensor (SAS) after a wheel alignment, as advised by the vehicle’s manufacturer for some vehicles equipped with Electronic Stability Control (ESC). Today’s over 40 million automobiles on the road require a reset/recalibration of the steering angle sensor (SAS) after a wheel alignment, as directed by the vehicle manufacturer for some cars equipped with Electronic Stability Control (ESC). Due to the fact that all automobiles manufactured for sale in the United States since 2012 have been fitted with ESC, this figure will continue to rise.

  • A steering angle reset has evolved into a required last step in the wheel alignment process.
  • Hunter’s CodeLink® is a simple, integrated solution that satisfies the reset needs of individual OEMs in a straightforward manner.
  • After the car has been placed into the system, the program determines whether or not the vehicle is a candidate for reset.
  • In certain cars, a full steering angle sensor reset includes the reset of other sensors such as the torque angle sensor and the yaw rate sensor.
  • Additionally, CodeLink® substitutes a number of OEM scan tools and gives the same user interface that the technician used to finish the alignment process.

It is necessary to utilize the Hunter aligner in order to provide written documentation that shows that the steering system reset was conducted correctly. Hunter WinAlign alignment solutions are included as standard with CodeLink®.

Did you know?

Due to the fact that the position of the steering angle sensor is no longer known after a wheel alignment, several automobile manufacturers now demand safety system alignments or safety system resets.

Resets steering angle sensors

Instructions for resetting the device are simplified in comparison to complicated OEM processes.

Replaces multiple tools

One tool eliminates the need for many, inefficient scan tools.

Easily handles most vehicles

CodeLink® is a streamlined approach that covers the majority of automobiles.

Explore Further

Hunter’s unique QuickGrip ®adaptors are used to measure each wheel with four high-precision cameras. Maintain your collision repair revenues by delivering alignment services in-house, which saves time for both you and your clients, and increases customer satisfaction. Every automobile that comes into your business will have its most critical alignment angles and edge-to-edge tire tread checked without the need for any stopping or effort. Make use of Hunter’s broad network of customer service representatives that can assist you with your account, product information, and technical support.

4 Signs Of A Bad Steering Angle Sensor (& Replacement Cost)

Modern automobiles are equipped with a profusion of sensors that are linked to the vehicle’s central computer, also known as the PCM. One of these sensors is the steering angle sensor, which is in charge of keeping an eye on the vehicle’s overall stability and traction. A relationship exists between this sensor and the vehicle’s stability technology, which goes by a variety of names. Every car manufacturer has a distinct name for their vehicle’s stability technology, however the fact that each manufacturer has a different name does not affect the fact that the technology employed by all manufacturers is essentially the same in terms of function.

  1. Let’s start with the warning indicators to keep an eye out for.
  2. In accordance with the vehicle’s model, the light is either a traction control or a check engine light.
  3. Any sensor can become worn out over time as a result of repeated use.
  4. When a component reaches the end of its useful life, it begins to degrade in terms of performance.
  5. Here is a more in-depth look at the most typical signs and symptoms of a faulty steering angle sensor in your vehicle.

Bad Steering Angle Sensor Symptoms

Older vehicles were equipped with a sensor that communicated with the ECU. The check engine light is on when there is an issue with the ECU, which means that this light on your dashboard might indicate any variety of problems with the powertrain. The traction control system and the engine control unit are interconnected and rely on a signal from the steering angle sensor; if this signal is not received correctly, the warning light will illuminate.

It is possible that the steering angle sensor has failed if this light illuminates on the dashboard when the vehicle is driving.

2. Traction Control Light Illuminates

Additionally, as previously stated, the steering angle sensor is coupled to the traction control system. The steering angle sensor is used by the traction control system to determine how much you are twisting the car and to make changes if you are driving on a slippery terrain. Traction control light will appear if the steering angle sensor fails to produce an accurate signal. Other warning lights, such as the ABS or the airbag light, may also be seen on your dashboard. Because the airbag is frequently integrated into the steering angle sensor component, if the wiring for the steering angle sensor is damaged, you may also experience difficulties with the airbag system.

3. Heavy Steering Wheel Turning

The majority of current automobiles are equipped with electric power steering. A measurement of the steering angle is necessary in order for this power steering to function effectively and for the power steering pump to know when to activate. In this case, it is the steering angle sensor that is responsible. It’s possible that the sensor transmitted incorrect information to the car’s onboard computer, causing the computer to make unneeded automated modifications. It is possible that the sensor has ceased operating completely, resulting in no information reaching the ECU (which will cause the traction control light to illuminate) and the power steering to become inoperative.

4. Car Acts Strange After Wheel Alignment

This is true if your vehicle is equipped with an electronic power steering pump, which is common in newer vehicles. If your automobile is acting a little funny or driving in an unusual manner even after a wheel alignment, it may be due to a malfunctioning steering angle sensor. After an alignment, it is critical and required to reset the steering angle sensor. This is a simple procedure. In the event that your technician fails to do so, you may have this difficulty. Consequently, if this occurs, take your vehicle to your technician and have the sensor reset and the wheels adjusted.

What Is a Steering Angle Sensor?

Modern automobiles are equipped with a plethora of sensors that alert the vehicle’s onboard computer to take the appropriate action in the event of a certain scenario. The steering angle sensor is an example of a sensor that is critical to the operation of an automobile as well as its performance. The steering angle sensor, as its name implies, measures the angle at which the vehicle is being driven. Analog and digital steering angle sensors are the two most common types of steering angle sensors.

The digital sensor, which is also the most often encountered sensor in automobiles, detects the angle of the wheel, the pace at which it rotates, and other critical information by using an LED light.

Location of the Steering Angle Sensor

The steering angle sensor is situated behind the steering wheel and wraps around the steering column in the majority of automobile models. It is possible that it is situated in the steering gear in some vehicles, although this is quite unusual.

Some vehicles feature two steering angle sensors, which makes it critical to replace the correct one when the first fails. It is necessary to remove the steering wheel in order to inspect or access the steering angle sensor on a regular basis.

Diagnosis of a Failing Steering Angle Sensor

In most cases, if you have the proper tools, determining whether or not you have a defective steering angle sensor is straightforward. In most circumstances, diagnosing it using a multimeter is quite difficult, and it is far preferable to utilize a diagnostic instrument instead. Simply attach the diagnostic tool to the steering angle sensor and observe the live data from the traction control system or engine control unit that is being transferred to the diagnostic tool. Maintaining the straightness of your steering wheel will result in a signal of zero degrees turned.

If it does not, it is possible that the steering angle sensor is malfunctioning.

Steering Angle Sensor Replacement Cost

Replacement of a steering angle sensor costs between $150 and $500 on average, depending on the car type and labor expenses. The steering angle sensor ranges in price from $120 to $250, with labor charges average between $80 and $250. Following a thorough examination of the replacement cost, the first thing you may notice is that it is quite variable. There is no predetermined price for the part, and there is also no defined labor cost for the job. This is due to a variety of factors. First and foremost, the cost of the part might vary depending on the brand and model of your vehicle.

It is necessary to calibrate the steering angle sensor once it has been replaced.

However, this is a very unusual occurrence.

BMW Steering Angle Sensor Symptoms & Replacement

In the BMW steering column, the BMW Steering Switch Unit (also known as the SZL, center steering column switch, and switch unit in the steering column) is installed where numerous switches, such as a wiper, turn signal and cruise control are located. This device includes an angle sensor for steering that is built into the SZL unit. SZL and steering angle sensors on any BMW are susceptible to failure, resulting in the inability to use any controls and the activation of several warning lights. When the steering angle sensor fails, it causes warning lights to illuminate; most of the time, the DSC lights will illuminate at random or as soon as you begin driving.

When the SZL module or steering angle sensor fails, the car will continue to operate normally, but you may be unable to use traction control, stability control, or use any of the switches. This issue has affected a wide range of BMW vehicles, including the 1, 3, 5, 7, X1, X3, X5, and others.

What is the BMW SZL module?

Figure 1 shows the location of the BMW steering angle sensor (LWS), the clock spring, and the steering switch assembly (SZL). It is located behind the steering wheel, and it is called the SZL module.

  • The SZL (steering switch unit) module and the steering angle sensor are not the same thing. Despite the fact that the SZL module contains the steering angle sensor, the SZL module serves a variety of other functions and purposes. The BMW SZL module is frequently confused with the steering wheel button switch module, which is located behind the airbag (in the steering wheel) and is in charge of controlling the steering wheel buttons. There are several switches in the SZL module, including a telescoping wheel switch, heated steering switch, wiper switch, turn signal, and clock spring
  • The SZL module is located underneath the steering wheel.
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How do you know if it is a bad steering angle sensor or SZL

A failing steering angle sensor occurs often and causes warning messages, as well as the illumination of the brake, DSC, and ABS lights.

  • It is most likely that a filthy steering angle sensor is the source of the DSC problem or any instrument cluster warning lights connected to ABS or traction control that illuminate arbitrarily as you begin to drive or make turns. The SZL module, rather than the steering angle sensor or clock spring, may be at fault if any of the switches installed on the SZL module, such as turn signals, wipers, or cruise control, fail to function.

To validate, use a BMW scan tool to look for problem codes.

BMW Steering Switch Unit Replacement Cost

It may be highly expensive to replace the SZL module, with prices ranging from $800 to $1500. The good news is that there may be a simple, low-cost solution to this situation. You can even put on a show for yourself. The following steps should be followed if you have been charged hundreds of dollars for SZL replacement because the ABS, DSC, and traction control lights are illuminated due to a faulty steering angle sensor: 1. Clean the steering angle sensor as stated below. Cleaning the steering angle sensor is simple and, in the majority of situations, will resolve issues with warning lights on the dash that have occurred.

  • BMW dealers will only replace or repair the SZL unit if BMW produces a Technical Service Bulletin stating that it is necessary.
  • If cleaning the steering angle sensor doesn’t work, you may still save money by changing the SZL unit yourself instead of hiring a professional.
  • The coding of a SZL takes less than an hour to complete.
  • It is far less expensive to replace the SZL yourself than it is to have it replaced by a mechanic or a dealer.
  • But don’t forget to code the SZL module so that it corresponds to the characteristics of your BMW’s steering wheel.
  • The following section contains instructions on how to replace the BMW SZL module.
  • The symptoms induced by a malfunctioning SZL are distinct from those presented by a malfunctioning steering angle sensor.

If the SZL unit is not functioning properly, any of the steering column switches may become inoperative. It is critical to identify which component is faulty. The symptoms listed below should only be used as a guideline. It is necessary to read problem codes in order to correctly diagnose a BMW.

Symptoms of a faulty steering angle sensor

If the SZL module in your BMW fails, you may suffer any of the difficulties listed below. Typically, the problem begins with a random warning sign appearing on the instrument cluster, which may disappear and then reappear at odd intervals throughout the day.

  • As soon as you start driving or spin the steering wheel, you will receive warning warnings.
  • Vehicle stability is reduced when the vehicle is accelerated or driven through bends. Drive at a reasonable speed
  • DBC malfunction
  • Start assistance is disabled
  • Dynamicdampingcontrol malfunction
  • DBC problem
  • SZL module or Steering AngleSensor that is not working properly
  • Drive Control and Drive Moderately messages are displayed. The steering wheel squeaks, and the DSC and brake warning lights are illuminated. The drive assist system is malfunctioning, and the start-off assist system is not operational. The AWD4x4 system and the DSC are not working properly. Driving Stability – Failure of the drive control system
  • The brake light is on, as is the DTC, DSC, and airbag light
  • The Dynamic Drive inactive warning light is illuminated. When turning, the BMW steering wheel squeaks
  • DSC, DBC, and Hill-Assist are not functional. When twisting the steering wheel, the DSC and FTM warning lights illuminate. Begin help in a non-active state
  • 5e43 code for the internal steering angle sensor
  • Typical fault codes include D373, 5E45, 5E43, 94BE, 94B694B5, and 94B694B5.

If you are experiencing any of these issues, you should first attempt to clean the steering angle sensor.

Symptoms of faulty BMW SZL module

If you experience any of the symptoms listed below, the SZL module or the switch itself is likely to blame, and the component must be replaced.

  • Turn signals do not go inactive
  • In this case, the wiper does not turn off. Paddle Shifters are not functioning properly. Control problem on the Crusie
  • Wipers are not functioning properly. Turn signals on a BMW are not working
  • Adaptive lighting are not operating or have been turned off.

How to replace BMW SZL unit

What you’ll need to get started

  • If you are purchasing a used SZL, be certain that you are obtaining one with the same component number. It is possible that different iterations of the same chassis are available. Depending on your vehicle’s extras, such as a paddle shifter, a Multi-Function Steering Wheel button, heated steering wheel, and so on, your SZL may need to be keyed to your vehicle as well.
  • There are no specific tools required. A socket set, screwdrivers, a Torx set, and a breaker bar are among the equipment that are often required to replace the SZL module.
  • Once the SZL module or steering angle sensor has been removed, it must be coded, and the steering angle sensor must be calibrated before the vehicle may be driven again. In order to accomplish this, you must have a sophisticated BMW scan tool. Such instruments can be rather pricey. Alternatives include installing the SZL or clock spring yourself and having a BMW dealer or professional perform the coding and calibration after the installation is complete. The entire treatment is completed in a matter of minutes. Because of dealership policies, you will almost certainly be charged for at least 30 minutes or even an hour.

Replace the steering angle sensor on a BMW by following the methods outlined below.

  1. Start by disconnecting the battery and waiting five minutes before attempting to service the airbags and SZL module. Check out the video below to see how to complete this step. Take the airbag out of the steering wheel and set it aside. To release the airbag spring, insert your fingers into the access holes on the side of the steering wheel. The airbag cables should be disconnected from the steering wheel. Watch this video to learn how to remove the airbags from your BMW 5-series E60. Removing the bolt that holds the steering wheel to the steering column is the first step. You’ll need a breaker bar to pry this bolt out
  2. Keep the steering wheel in the other hand as you work. Check out the video below to learn how to take the BMW steering wheel off. Remove the clock spring from the SZL module and set it aside. Remove the nuts that hold the clock spring to the SZL module/steering switch unit in place and set them aside. Check out the video below to see how to complete this step. If required, turn off the wiper, turn signal, and cruise control switches on the wall. They are kept in place by a series of tiny screws. The switches should be removed once the bolts have been removed. Install the SZL and switch module in the reverse sequence of installation. Reconnect the battery and turn on the engine. Then, with the steering wheel completely turned to the right, turn it completely around to the left. Repeat this process a couple of times.

When you replace the SZL module on a BMW, be sure to clear all of the problem codes. To clear codes from the SZL module, use a scanner designed specifically for BMW. Function and calibration of the steering angle sensor adjustment system should be completed.

How to clean the BMW steering angle sensor

The steering angle sensor, which is included into the SZL module, is frequently found to be the source of the problem. One of the most prevalent signs is that your traction control light/DSC, along with any other warning lights, will illuminate immediately after starting your car and turning the steering wheel in any direction. Most of the time, this problem is caused by a filthy steering angle sensor that has muck built up on its surface. The good news is that it is easily cleansed, and in the majority of cases, this will resolve the SZL issue.

  1. The cleaning technique for your BMW’s steering angle sensor is dependent on the type of sensor that has been fitted.
  2. As a general rule of thumb, most BMWs manufactured prior to 2007 were equipped with a potentiometer steering angle sensor.
  3. Potentiometer is used by the BMW Steering Angle Sensor.
  4. Electronic Contact Cleaner can be used to clean the steering angle sensor on the vehicle.
  5. During the optical discovery time, a tiny coating of dirt and grease will accumulate on the lens.
  6. When the laser beam is sent to the disk, the layer will either block or refract the light beam, making it impossible to discern the location of the steering wheel.
  7. Only a lint-free cleaning cloth should be used.
  8. Make use of a product comparable to Meguiars Clear Plastic to get the desired results.
  9. If possible, use a product that is specifically intended for cleaning discs and plastic.

Restart the car and drive it for a short distance, and the lights should be reset automatically. If the lights continue to illuminate, use a BMW scan tool to decode the codes. Calibration of the steering angle should be performed, and the codes should be cleared.

Calibrate BMW steering angle sensor

If the DSC light continues to illuminate, the steering angle sensor should be calibrated. If the DSC light does not come back on, check for fault codes.

BMW SZL Module Part Numbers

The part numbers shown below are just for reference purposes. Ensure that the component number is correct by removing your old SZL module or by contacting your local dealer. Please keep in mind that if BMW introduces a new or enhanced steering switch unit, the part numbers will change.

​ Can I replace the clock spring without coding the SZL module?

The clockspring is a component of the SZL module, and they are often changed as a single unit. It is possible to replace out the clock spring, however it is not a straightforward task.

I cleaned the steering angle sensor, and the DSc inactive keeps coming back. What could it be?

Make sure your BMW is in proper alignment. A misalignment might cause the DSC light to illuminate. Many shops will provide a complimentary alignment check as a courtesy. The DSC light can also be activated by lowering the vehicle. Also, make sure your BMW’s battery is in good working order. If it is not retaining a sufficient charge, it should be replaced.

Does an SZL module need programming for the car?

It varies depending on the year and model. SZL is often required to be coded. Depending on the situation, VIN programming may be necessary. Call your BMW dealer to confirm the information depending on the VIN of your vehicle.

Can you replace the BMW SZL module on your own?

Yes, the method is straightforward. It is possible to code and calibrate the steering angle sensor on your own if you have an INAP or any other BMW scan equipment at your disposal.

Where is the BMW SZL module located?

It is located in the steering column, directly behind the steering wheel.

Do you need frontwheel alignmentwhen replacing the SZL module?

It is only when the steering wheel is carried properly that there is no need for front-end alignment. Before calibrating the steering angle sensor, make sure that the wheels are pointed straight forward at all times.

Do I need any special tools to replace the SZL module?

Torx sets and other common auto-repair tools are shown here, for example. There are no specific tools required.

Can the BMW SZL or steering angle sensor be programmed out of the car?

No, you must first install the SZL and the steering angle sensor in the vehicle, after which you must do the steering angle sensor adjustment system function and calibration on the vehicle.

Can I replace the SZL myself first, then drive it to the dealer to have it reprogrammed?

Yes. It is possible that the DSC, wiper, or other switches will not function until the SZL has been configured.

  • Between 2012 and 2015, there were three models and nine versions of the BMW 3 Series (E21, E30, E36, E46, E90, E91, E92, E93)
  • Between 2010 and 2016, there were 1 model and 21 versions of the BMW X Series (E53, E70, E71, E83).
  • 61 31 9 368 597 / 61 31 9 330 563 / 61 31 9 261 757
  • 61 31 9 368 597 / 61 31 9 330 563 / 61 31 9 261 757
  • 61-319-368-597/61-319-330-563/61-319-261-757
  • 61-319-368-597/61-319-261-757
  • 61-319-368-597/61-319-368-597
  • 61-319-368-597
  • 6 958 296, 6 965 289, 9 121 893, 6 962 448, 6 989 579, 9 110 886, 6 962 675
  • 6 958 296
  • 6 965 289
  • 9 121 893
  • 6 962 448
  • 6 989 579
  • 9 110 886
  • 6 962 675
  • F22/F23/F87M2/F30/F34/F35GT/F80M3/F32/F33/F82M4/F83M4/F26X4
  • The following numbers are in the 9169071 directory: 9 123 033, 6 965 288, 9 110 885, 9 196 281, 6 962 674, 6 962 447, 6 958 295, 6 989 578, and 9 121 746.
  • 9121901 9 123 049, 6 965 290, 6 962 676, 9 121 901, 6 989 580, 6 962 449, 9 110 887, 6 958 297
  • 9121901 9 123 049, 6 965 290, 6 962 676, 9 121 901, 6 989 580, 6 962 449, 9 110 887, 6 958 297

Steering Angle Sensor 101

Many advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) features, from blind-spot recognition to autonomous driving, make use of the steering angle. More information is available by clicking here.

What and Why of Sensing the Steering Angles

In electronic stability control (ESC) systems, anti-lock braking systems (ABS), and advanced driver assistance systems, measuring the position angle and rate of turn is crucial (ADAS). These sensors are referred to as Steering Angle Sensors (SAS) by scan tools, and the information is often shown in degrees. A computer can evaluate if a vehicle is understeering, oversteering, or out of control based on information from the yaw, accelerometers, and wheel speeds along with other data. The SAS is often found behind the steering wheel, as part of a cluster of sensors.

  1. Two signals are required for the ABS/ESC module in order to determine the location of the steering wheel, and these signals are frequently out of phase with one another.
  2. A small number of SAS clusters and sensor modules are connected to the Controller Area Network (CAN) bus, which is a high-speed serial data network that interacts in binary language with other modules and nodes in the system.
  3. As a result of this communication, the electric power steering system may get information from the steering angle sensor, and the stability control system can receive information from the steering wheel torque sensor, among other things.
  4. In other words, a node, such as an SAS module, must understand and generate signals that can be understood by the other modules connected to the same bus.

In either case, the SAS module can be connected directly to the ABS/ESC module via a CAN connection, or it can be included in the overall CAN network, as part of a loop that links various modules throughout the vehicle.

Sifting through data

A scan tool is the most effective method of testing modules on a high-speed CAN bus. Most scan tools look directly at the data, but certain scan tools may not be able to look directly at the datastream for an SAS signal due to technical difficulties with the tool in question. If you find yourself in this circumstance, pay attention to how the activation of a sensor, switch, or component might alter the activity on the data bus. It is possible to view packets of data being transferred on a bus by using a scope linked between chassis ground and the bus wires in the OBD II DLC and examining at its voltage readings.

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The content of the communication is hard to discern, but it is feasible to determine whether they are conversing.

This module may incorporate the SAS sensor cluster.

When the SAS cluster fails, it is frequently impossible to replace it on its own and instead the complete unit must be replaced.

Resetting Steering Angle Sensors

After executing an alignment or changing elements in the steering system, many cars require that the SAS be reset or recalibrated to ensure proper operation. Reset processes may be classified into three categories:

  • For starters, certain systems are capable of self-calibration. Second, certain cars need the use of particular cables or grounding, as well as the pressing of specific buttons. Third, certain systems necessitate the use of a scan tool for calibration.

Even if the SAS is out of calibration, most cars are capable of determining whether or not they are moving in a straight path. If the angle is sufficiently out of range, it may generate a fault code and cause the ESC system to be disabled. Some Chrysler cars require no more than spinning the wheels lock-to-lock, centering the wheel, and cycling the key to recalibrate the sensor following an alignment or a dead battery. Newer automobiles are increasingly equipped with this “auto-learn” feature.

In terms of scan instruments for resetting the SAS, there are several solutions available; some scan tools are even integrated into an alignment system.

Some even include a technique for setting the steering stops for electric power steering, which may be found here.

It is also necessary to attach a scan tool in order to verify the proper working of the SAS.

At first glance, it appears that the number does not range from 0o to 360o. It’s possible that the number is excessively negative or unlikely. Once the relearn method has been completed, the figures should be in compliance with the requirements for moving on.

ADAS Connection

Many advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) features, from blind-spot recognition to autonomous driving, make use of the steering angle. If the steering angle sensor is not calibrated properly, it might result in the incorrect activation of numerous advanced driver assistance systems. It is the mistaken activation of the lane departure system that is the most irritating fault. Even the tiniest inaccuracy in the SAS might cause the car to believe that the driver is attempting to steer into an oncoming lane, which is dangerous.

Steering Angle Sensor – Everything You Need To Know!

The steering angle sensor is an extremely vital component of the computer system in your vehicle. The steering angle sensor is in charge of determining the angle at which the steering wheel is turned and the pace at which it returns. Driving your car in this manner permits you to make the proper turning movements. It is critical that these sensors are in proper functioning order so that you may safely turn your vehicle when the situation calls for it. Automobile repairs are EXTREMELY EXPENSIVE.

Several steering sensors are used to validate the data and make sure that the calculations are right before your automobile begins to turn.

The purpose of this is to verify that your wheel is in the proper position.

If your sensors begin to fail, it is critical that you have them replaced as soon as possible.

Analog Steering Sensors

Analog steering angle sensors are linked in series with a 5-volt reference to provide feedback. It is possible to test the sensors using a port located under the steering wheel column. Because these sensors play such an essential function, it is critical that they are in excellent working order. If these sensors are not functioning properly, they will not be able to precisely identify the angle at which your vehicle is turning. It’s understandable that you would be curious about how these steering angle sensors truly function.

By attaching meters to both of the steering angle sensors, you can see the 0 to 5 volt signal that is generated.

If these two sensors are reading the same thing, you don’t want that to happen.

The voltage that is generated is proportional to the direction in which you are turning. When a car is turning right, for example, the majority of them will generate a positive potential. The result will be a negative voltage generated when they turn left.

How Does A Steering Angle Sensor Work?

In such case, you might be asking how these sensors function in the first place. The steering angle sensor’s primary function is to discern where the driver want to turn the vehicle. In order to ensure that the vehicle travels in the proper direction, the sensor must match the steering wheel with the vehicle’s wheels. You don’t want your steering wheel to be rotating in one direction while the wheels of your automobile are turning in the other. Obviously, if that were the case, we would never be able to reach wherever we want.

  • In order to assure accuracy, numerous steering angle sensors are bundled together in a single device and tested simultaneously.
  • Having established what these sensors are used for, let us discuss how they operate.
  • It is critical that they are provided with accurate information on the angular measurements.
  • What method is used to determine the angle?
  • Your car’s computer system is communicated with via the sensor, which reads the information from the LED light and sends signals to it.
  • Starting with the steering wheel and progressing to the wheels, this occurs.
  • This will provide an indication of how quickly the angles must be computed.
  • At very low speeds, the steering wheel is being rotated at a rather rapid pace.
  • If you try to move your steering wheel while driving at high speeds, your car’s computer system will detect this as your vehicle losing control and alert the appropriate authorities.
  • When a driver turns the steering wheel, this sensor monitors how much force is being applied to the steering wheel.
  • It operates in conjunction with the steering wheel, so that when the wheel is turned, the sensor somewhat twists as well.

How The Electronic Stability Control Works

The electronic stability control system is critical for maintaining vehicle stability. This system takes in all of the information from the sensors and uses it to compute the proper angles at which the steering wheel should be turned. Once all of the signals have been received by the ESC module, they are compared to the software contained inside the ESC system. Vital so that it may compare angles and select which ones are the most appropriate for your turning circumstance is important to know.

  1. Consider the following scenario: your ESC system senses a lack of steering control.
  2. The ESC will send a signal to your vehicle, instructing it to lower engine torque.
  3. This is designed as a safety element to aid in the prevention of accidents and the recovery of control of your vehicle.
  4. The electronic stability control module of the vehicle will be activated, and the brakes will be applied to the appropriate wheels.
  5. It is critical to ensure that the steering angle sensors are verified once an alignment has been completed successfully.
  6. This is extremely detrimental since the angle computations will be incorrect, and this might result in unanticipated direction changes as a consequence.

While the wheel is being rotated in one way, it is possible for the direction to shift. In the event that you have your steering wheel system components corrected, it is critical that you check your steering angle sensors to verify that they are functioning properly.

What Are The Symptoms Of A Failing Steering Angle Sensor?

When it comes to making sure your steering wheel angles are proper, these sensors are critical. It is critical to understand the signs and symptoms of a failed steering angle sensor. In most cases, they do not fail frequently because they are meant to last the whole life of your vehicle. Even though they are designed to survive for a long period of time, they might eventually wear out and fail. Two main warning indicators will appear on your dashboard if your steering angle sensors are not functioning properly.

  • If this is the case, you will want to get them corrected as soon as possible.
  • Your steering angle sensor will convey erroneous information if it malfunctions, and it may even cease collecting information completely.
  • This fault code will cause your check engine light to illuminate.
  • A technician will be able to establish the source of the problem and will also be able to assist you in repairing it.
  • This is especially likely to happen after you have had your steering wheel adjusted or a component of the system changed.
  • During this time period, your electric power steering module may offer inaccurate input or adjustments at the wrong moment.
  • This occurs as a result of inaccurate information being transmitted to your steering wheel.
  • After finishing an alignment, many vehicle repair companies overlook the need of resetting the steering angle sensors.
  • If you begin to encounter either of the two symptoms listed above, you should take your vehicle to a local repair shop to ensure that the sensors are functioning properly.
  • Waiting too long will just make the situation worse.

How Do I Reset Steering Angle Sensors?

A large number of automobiles on the road nowadays are equipped with electronic stability control modules, which require the steering angle sensors to be reset following wheel alignments. If any components of the steering wheel system are replaced, it is also necessary to reset the steering angle sensors. In order for an automobile to turn at the right angles, these sensors are critical to its operation. The steering wheel system will not function correctly if they are not reset properly. There are two methods for resetting the steering angle sensors on your vehicle.

  • It is referred to as self-calibration.
  • When you spin the steering wheel from lock to lock to center, you will experience this.
  • The sort of vehicle you drive has a significant impact on this process.
  • The third method of resetting your steering angle sensors is known as a scan tool reset.
  • Some of these tools are included into the alignment system, but a large number of them urge that the calibration be carried out manually beforehand.
  • As long as your alignment equipment is equipped with a steering angle sensor reset feature, you won’t require any mechanical assistance.
  • When it comes to resetting your steering angle sensors, your local repair shop will be able to assist you.

You don’t want to make any other areas of the project worse. If you do not know how to conduct this reset, it is advisable to have a technician execute it for you if you do not know how to do it yourself.


It is not difficult to replace the steering angle sensor on your vehicle. You may take your automobile to your local repair shop, and they will be able to assist you with this problem. Initially, they will perform diagnostics to discover the specific nature of the problem, and then they will inform you of the best course of action to take. They will also be able to provide you with a pricing estimate so that you can budget for your future. If your car is growing older and you don’t believe it’s worth it to continue to invest money into it, you can sell it to Cash Cars Buyer for a cash payment.

You will find the process to be extremely simple.

We’ll determine if we want to fix it ourselves or whether we want to refurbish the functional pieces.

Go to our website or give us a call right now to obtain a price quotation!

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